Real Property Exchange Agreement Philippines

Real Property Exchange Agreement: What You Need to Know in the Philippines

When buying or selling properties in the Philippines, it is important to understand the legalities that govern these transactions. One of the methods used in property transfers is through a real property exchange agreement. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what it is, how it works, and what you need to know.

What is a Real Property Exchange Agreement?

A real property exchange agreement is a legal document that allows property owners to swap their real estate assets with one another. In essence, it is a type of barter where each party agrees to give up their respective property and receive the other party’s property. This type of agreement is also known as a like-kind exchange or a tax-free exchange.

How Does it Work in the Philippines?

The real property exchange agreement in the Philippines is governed by the Civil Code and the National Internal Revenue Code (NIRC). When parties enter into a real property exchange agreement, they must execute a written document that contains the following details:

– Description of the properties being exchanged

– The value of the properties being exchanged

– The agreement of the parties regarding the exchange

– The date of the exchange

Once the agreement is signed, it must be registered with the Registry of Deeds where the properties are located. The Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) must also be notified of the exchange, as it may entail tax implications.

Tax Implications of Real Property Exchange Agreements

Under the NIRC, like-kind exchanges of real property are considered non-taxable. This means that if the exchange meets the criteria for a like-kind exchange, the parties will not be required to pay capital gains tax. However, if the exchange involves different types of properties (e.g. land for a building), it may not qualify as a like-kind exchange and will be subject to capital gains tax.

It is important to note that the BIR requires parties to file a notice of the exchange within 30 days from the date of the agreement. Failure to comply may result in penalties and fines.

Advantages of Real Property Exchange Agreements

Real property exchange agreements offer several advantages to property owners. For one, it allows them to dispose of their property without having to go through the hassle of selling it in the market. It also provides an opportunity to acquire a property that may not have been available otherwise. Lastly, it may offer tax advantages to property owners who qualify for a like-kind exchange.


A real property exchange agreement is a legal method of transferring properties in the Philippines. It allows parties to trade their real estate assets without requiring cash payments. However, it is important to understand the legal and tax implications of such agreements to avoid any legal and financial problems. If you are considering a real property exchange agreement, seek the advice of a legal professional to ensure that your interests are protected.